- See also: Obama Administration
Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. (born August 4, 1961) was the President of the United States of America from 2009 to 2017. He was the United States's 44th president, succeeding former President George W. Bush, and was the first African American  to be elected to the presidency. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009 for his public commitment to nuclear disarmament.
He became the nominee for the Democratic Party in the 2008 presidential election, defeating Senator Hillary Clinton in the longest primary season in American history. His running mate Joe Biden became vice-president.
Prior to becoming President, Obama was a member of the U.S. Senate (D-IL). Before that, he had served eight years in the Illinois state senate.
Personal and family life
Obama was born on August 4, 1961 in Honolulu, Hawaii (U.S. state). His parents were Barack Hussein Obama, Sr., from Kenya, and Ann Dunham, an American from Kansas. His father deserted the family when Obama was two years old and later divorced his mother. His father returned to Kenya and met Barack Jr. only once thereafter. He died in a car accident in 1982. On his father's side, Obama has two half-sisters and five surviving half-brothers. In 1967, his mother married Lolo Soetoro, an Indonesian student, with whom she had one daughter, Maya. The family lived for several years in Indonesia. Obama's mother died in 1995 of ovarian cancer. Obama describes his experiences growing up as a multiracial American, as well as the absence of his father, in his 1995 memoir, Dreams of My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. The Birther Movement is a U.S. political challenge to the legitimacy of his citizenship.
Obama returned from Indonesia in 1971 to live with his maternal grandparents in Hawaii, where he attended the elite private Punahou School, from which he graduated in 1979.  Obama states that he used alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine during his teenage years, to "push questions of who I was out of my mind."  In Dreams of my Father, Obama reports that, "For my grandparents, my admission into Punahou Academy heralded the start of something grand, an elevation in the family status that they took great pains to let everyone know." His grandmother, Madelyn Dunham, died the day before the 2008 presidential election. Obama had earlier cut short some of his campaign schedule to visit her, and later received condolences from his Republican rival, John McCain.
Obama attended Occidental College in Los Angeles, 1979-81, then transferred to Columbia University in New York City and was awarded a BA in political science in 1983. He worked as a community organizer in Chicago (1985-8). He earned a J.D. Magna Cum Laude from Harvard Law School in 1991, where he was the editor of the prestigious Harvard Law Review. After moving to Chicago, his wife's hometown, in 1991 he managed a voter education registration drive for the city Democrats. In 1993 he joined the law firm Miner, Barhill and Galland P.C as an associate and became a Senior Lecturer in Law at the University of Chicago Law School, where he taught a course on constitutional law. His firm was connected to Democratic politics and focused on civil rights litigation and community redevelopment. As an associate he litigated voting rights and employment cases and also argued appeals in the US Court of Appeals. After three years as an associate in 1996 he was appointed "Of Counsel" with Miner, Barhill and Galland, an appointment he still holds; he was never a partner. In the 1980s he joined the United Church of Christ (UCC) denomination (formerly the Congregationalists) and he attended Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago. He later left that church after controversial remarks by its pastor. He has not subsequently joined another, but has attended various churches, with Evergreen Chapel at Camp David as the main one.
He married Michelle Obama (born 1964) in 1992; they have two daughters, Malia Ann (born 1998) and Natasha (Sasha, born 2001). Michelle Obama is a lawyer by profession, and grew up in a two-parent family in a working-class neighborhood on Chicago's South Side. She was salutatorian of her high school class, and then attended Princeton (BA, 1985), an experience which made her more keenly aware of herself as an educated African American. Her 1985 senior thesis was on "Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community." She stated that how black Princeton alumni viewed their place in society vis-a-vis the black community at large was of particular interest to her, as she was soon to join their ranks. She felt that she had been made more aware of her blackness since attending Princeton, and was, to the Whites she encountered, "Black first and a student second." Sometimes misquoted or taken out of context, access to her thesis was restricted until after the presidential election. At Harvard Harvard Law School (JD, 1988), she was involved in the Black Law Students Association, and pushed hard to improve the low numbers of African-American faculty and students.  After graduation, she became an associate at a leading Chicago law form, Sidley and Austin, specializing in intellectual property. She became an aide to mayor Richard J. Daley, and then as the city of Chicago's assistant commissioner of planning and development. From 2005 to ? she has been vice president of community and external affairs at the University of Chicago Medical Center, where she was responsible for all programs that involve the relationship between the Hospitals and the community; she also supervised the Hospitals' business diversity program.
Illinois state legislature
Obama was elected unopposed to the Illinois State Senate in 1996 after his campaign audited the signatures of his opponent's application, disqualifying all of them. He represented the 13th District, comprising the university neighborhood of Hyde Park in south Chicago. Obama now claims his major accomplishments included, "creating programs like the state Earned Income Tax Credit", "an expansion of early childhood education"; and "legislation requiring the videotaping of interrogations and confessions in all capital cases." However at the time Obama had a reputation as an ineffectual legislator. Some colleagues saw him as a self-righteous goo-goo who thought he was too cool for the chamber and who disdained the hard work of digging up votes. "Barack is a very intelligent man," newsman Rich Miller said in 2000. "He hasn't had a lot of success here [in the state senate], and it could be because he places himself above everybody. He likes people to know he went to Harvard." In 2002 he spoke out in opposition to an invasion of Iraq, and in his presidential campaign has repeatedly emphasized that opposition, noting that Hillary Clinton voted in support of President George W. Bush.
In 2000, he made an unsuccessful Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives seat held by four-term incumbent candidate Bobby Rush. Rush was endorsed by President Bill Clinton and portrayed Obama as an elitist Ivy Leaguer who was "not black enough." Obama responded, "When Congressman Rush and his allies attack me for going to Harvard and teaching at the University of Chicago, they're sending a signal to black kids that if you're well-educated, somehow you're not 'keeping it real.'" Rush won easily 61%-30%, and Obama changed his campaign style.
During his 2004 U.S. Senate campaign, the Illinois Fraternal Order of Police initially endorsed Daniel Hynes but, after Hynes lost in the primary, later endorsed Hynes opponent, Obama. Given his support of police restrictions in interrogating suspects and requiring police to collect racial information, his police support was mixed as evidenced by a chilly reception he received at a speech to police. 
Keynote address at 2004 Democratic National Convention
Obama, who was personally selected by John Kerry, received national attention when he delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention while still serving as a state senator and running for US Senate. The speech was hailed for its powerful oratory, and its call to unify both sides of the political spectrum in America.
United States Senator
In 2003, Obama began his run for the U.S. Senate open seat vacated by Republican Peter Fitzgerald. The front-runner for the nomination, stock trader Blair Hull, spent $29 million on the primary but gained only 11% of the vote. State Comptroller Dan Hynes had the support of the Cook County organization but gained only 24% of the vote. Obama, riding a wave of antiwar sentiment easily won the primary with 53%. The Republican Party primary winner Jack Ryan was forced out of the race following public disclosure of divorce records containing steamy sexual allegations by Ryan's ex-wife. With less than three months to go before election day, Republicans picked Alan Keyes, an African American diplomat under Ronald Reagan and a conservative activist from Maryland, to replace Ryan on the GOP ticket. Keyes moved to Illinois for the campaign and was ridiculed for carpetbagging and for his rigidly conservative positions, which many found out of the mainstream. At one point, Obama's lead in the polls was so secure, that he allowed staffers to work on other Democratic campaigns. After spending $14 million (against $2.5 million by Keyes), Obama won 70%-27%.
Obama was sworn in as a Senator on January 4, 2005. Three months into his Senate career, and again in 2007, Time magazine named Obama one of the world's most influential people.
As Senator, Obama co-sponsored the "Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act" introduced by Republican Senator John McCain. 
During the first month of the 110th Congress, Obama introduced the Iraq War De-Escalation Act, a bill that caps troop levels in Iraq at January 10, 2007 levels, begins phased redeployment on May 1, 2007, and removes all combat brigades from Iraq by March 31, 2008. This bill was not voted on. Obama has long stressed his anti-war position. 
In November 2007, Obama was subject to controversy over his home purchase with indicted Illinois businessman, Antoin Rezko. A homeowner sold Obama a house at a discount and simultaneously an adjacent vacant lot at the full asking price to Rezko's wife. Obama said the arrangement was "boneheaded" but not illegal.  Obama was not charged with any crime.
In February 2007, Obama announced at the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois, that he was a candidate for U.S. President.  For daily updates on the polls see 
This section duplicates the Obama section of 2008 United States presidential election
Obama presented himself as a post-racial, post-partisan contender of universal appeal, promising to end the old politics and bring the country together in bipartisan fashion. He appealed strongly to youth and stresses his early opposition to the war in Iraq. Making "change" his central campaign theme and downplaying race, Obama, a charismatic speaker, argues "We can't afford to settle for the same old politics." In late 2007 he repeatedly attacked Clinton for her 2002 vote supporting war against Iraq, and for her ties to lobbies and old-fashioned politics. Clinton responded by hammering away at Obama's inexperience and charged he substituted rhetoric for action. Bill Clinton, noting that Obama and his wife recorded similar voting records in the Senate, snapped that Obama was engaging in a "fairy tale" regarding Iraq, a point of ridicule that bothered Black leaders and increased racial polarization among Democrats.
Obama raised $103 million in 2007 and spent $85 million, and raised a record setting $32 million in January 2008. In terms of his Senate voting, he moved 15 places to the left in 2007, ranking as the most-liberal member of the U.S. Senate. In 2006, he had been the 16th-most-liberal senator. Obama's popularity is strongest among younger and better educated voters. He dominated African American support, which comprises about 20% of the Democratic primary vote nationwide, and 30-50% in the deep South, notably as South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. However Clinton's husband Bill Clinton has long been popular in the black community and she received many high profile endorsements.
2008 began with Clinton enjoying a big lead nationally, but Obama scored a stunning victory on January 3, in the Iowa caucuses, defeating Clinton and John Edwards by 8 points.  With Obama seizing the momentum and attracting youthful voters, pundits and pollsters agreed he was heading to a landslide win in the New Hampshire, the first primary state. But Clinton surprised everyone (even her own staff) by winning the primary 39% to 37% for Obama and 17% for Edwards. Obama did best among men, younger voters, independents, and college graduates, while Clinton won by wide margins among women, poorer voters, union members, registered Democrats and older voters--that is, her voter profile resembled the historic New Deal Coalition. Clinton again outpolled Obama in the Nevada caucuses, but Obama refused to concede because he claimed one more delegate than she. With John Edwards trailing far behind, the Democratic contest focused on Obama and Clinton. In a bruising battle in South Carolina on Jan. 26, Obama, with strong black support, won decisively. Clinton remains ahead in nationwide polls and in most states on Tsunami Tuesday. The campaign turned rough in mid-January, as Obama began to link the two Clintons:
- "He [Bill Clinton] continues to make statements that are not supported by the facts — whether it's about my record of opposition to the war in Iraq or our approach to organizing in Las Vegas. This has become a habit, and one of the things that we're gonna have to do is to directly confront Bill Clinton when he's making statements that are not factually accurate."
Obama won a landslide in the South Carolina primary by sweeping 78% of the blacks vote and 25% of the whites, giving him 55% overall to 27% for Clinton and 18% for Edwards. Analysts point out that the upshot may be that Obama is typecast as the "black candidate" with a weak appeal to Hispanics as the contest heads to states where blacks comprise less than 25% of the primary voters. As political scientist Larry Sabato noted, "A few carefully chosen words and framing angles [by the Clintons] have transformed Obama from the post-racial, post-partisan contender of universal appeal into a more typical African-American candidate, who is much less intrinsically attractive to whites and Hispanics." On Tsunami Tuesday the outcome was a virtual tie in terms of votes and delegates. 
After Tsunami Tuesday, Obama won 11 straight contests, carrying major states like Virginia, Maryland and Wisconsin by landslides, and reducing Clinton's once formidable coalition to a narrow lead among white women and Latinos. She rebuilt her coalition in Texas, Ohio and Pennsylvania, equalizing the race in early March. Meanwhile Obama was embarrassed when a top foreign policy advisor resigned after calling Clinton a monster, when attention focused on an Obama business partner and fundraiser on trial in Chicago on criminal charges, and the diplomatic episode in which Obama's top economic advisor told Canadian officials that Obama's attacks on the NAFTA trade agreement represented campaign rhetoric.
Even sharper attacks were directed at the Rev. Jeremiah A. Wright Jr. of Chicago, who was Obama's minister and spiritual advisor for 20 years. Obama opponents circulated videos of Wright's hardline attacks, including the statement "God damn America for treating our citizens as less than human," in reference to U.S. race relations. Obama in mid-March disavowed Wright, but his long-time association with Wright proved a major campaign issue for Clinton. Polls in March showed him significantly damaged by the Wright connection, losing support among the independents who formed a critical part of his base. Republican strategists predicted that Wright's angry sermons, in which the minister blame American foreign policy for the 9-11 Attack and criticized Israel, could represent a powerful weapon against Obama in the fall. In a major speech on March 18 Obama repudiated Wright but attributed his anger to lingering racism in America; Obama conceded that he knew Wright "to be an occasionally fierce critic of American domestic and foreign policy" and that he had heard controversial remarks in church. Wright himself went on national television to repeat his rhetoric and criticize Obama, forcing Obama to decisively repudiate Wright. In late May another preacher at the same church ridiculed Clinton to a cheering congregation, and Obama officially resigned from the church. About half of North Carolina Democrats said the Wright issue mattered to them, and they voted decisively for Senator Clinton. After the Wright affair McCain pulled slightly ahead of Obama among unaffiliated voters. McCain enjoyed unified support from Republican voters while Obama only attracted 65% of Democratic votes at that time. At a deeper level, Obama had trouble reaching white working class Democrats, who voted heavily against him in April and May primaries, and who told pollsters they may vote for McCain in the fall or just stay home.
Global financial crisis
During the 2008 financial crisis, Obama and McCain clashed over the proposed taxpayer-baked Wall Street bailout; while McCain said he would suspend his campaign to go to Washington for talks over the deal, Obama argued that the forthcoming presidential debate should continue. In the event, Obama did go to Washington, but according to some commentators, was the more effective of the two men in raising pertinent issues. Obama later said that reflection rather than drama was his position during the crisis.
Later campaign and upshot
After John McCain chose little-known Alaskan politician, Governor Sarah Palin, as running mate before the Republican convention in September 2008, the media immediately began scrutinizing her and unearthed a numbers of scandals, including the abuse of power when governing Alaska, as well as gossips such as her daughter's pregnancy. Many pundits noted that though McCain might have chosen Palin to attract the Republican base, she ultimately hurt his campaign by alienating moderate voters. Obama's campaign in deed capitalized on the shortcomings of Palin, and attacked her social conservative views as too extreme. He also criticized the hateful slogans shouted out during a rally conducted in support of Palin.
Meanwhile, the McCain campaign zeroed in at the possible connection between Obama and a notorious 1960s terrorist, Bill Ayers, who went on to a teaching career in Chicago and had association with Obama. In November 4th, the election day, Obama won a resounding victory and gained the presidency, with majority in both popular and electoral votes, picking up traditionally Republican-dominated states such as Indiana, North Carolina, and Virginia, as well as winning most swing states such as Florida and Ohio.
First 100 days
Barack Obama became one the few presidents to take the oath of office twice, Chief Justice John Roberts having made a minor mistake during its administration on inauguration day. The renewed oath has no implications for Obama's legitimacy as President, as the new term begins automatically following the previous president leaving office.
Obama's inaugural address was generally well-received, although it was not thought to be his best speech. In it, he focussed on the need to fix the American economy, and exhorted ordinary Americans to do their part.
In addition to his attention to economic policy, including an immediate pay freeze for White House staff earning over $100,000 per year, the new president began his presidential term of office with a focus on foreign policy, particularly the Middle East and the Guantanamo detention camp. In line with his previous pledge to close the camp, Obama had military trials at Guantanamo suspended. He also called Middle Eastern leaders to pursue Arab-Israeli peace. Obama appointed George Mitchell as a special envoy for the Middle East, with former United Nations Ambassador Richard Holbrooke becoming special representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan. On January 22, Obama signed executive orders authorizing the closure of the Guantanao camp within a year, and banning the use of torture during intelligence interrogation.
Obama's inaugural address contained reference to the need to address global warming and renewable energy supplies. Later that month, the administration released details of a job-creating "recovery and reinvestment plan" to create jobs in the renewables sector and increase energy efficiency. Soon after, the administration brought legislation to Congress providing for $15 billion of new federal funding for science. However, some of this was cut from the bill in order to reach a compromise with Senate Republicans, including $3.5 billion slashed from a $7 billion proposal for energy-efficient federal buildings, and $200 million of cuts from the intended Environmental Protection Agency funding. Nobel laureate Dr. Steven Chu, a physicist, was appointed Energy Secretary, heading up a $23-billion-plus budget. Other scientists filled various posts, including environmental scientist Dr. John Holdren as Assistant to the President for Science and Technology.
Obama's choices for executive posts within his administration suffered some setbacks: New Mexico governor Bill Richardson withdrew as incoming Commerce Secretary before Obama took office due to an investigation into a company that had worked for his state. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geither disclosed that he had failed to pay $34,000 of taxes while working for the International Monetary Fund, but remained in his new post. By February, two other nominees had withdrawn, due to questions over their tax affairs: former Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle (Health and Human Services), and Nancy Killefer (Chief Performance Officer). Obama later said over the Daschle affair, "I think I screwed up."
In January, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration gave the go-ahead to a stem cell research program that had been on hold since 2006. On March 6, Obama overturned a Bush administration executive order that had prevented research funding on new embryonic stem cells, stating his view as a "person of faith" that people are called "to ease human suffering."
On May 26, 2009, Obama nominated Sonia Sotomayor, a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, to replace retiring justice David Souter on the Supreme Court of the United States.
Health care reform
During the campaign, reform of the health care system was one of Obama's manifesto commitments, as well as a rallying cry for all of the primary and election candidates from both the major parties. Mr Obama had said in a 2007 interview with The New Yorker that if he could build the health care system from scratch he favored a single-payer system:
“If you’re starting from scratch...then a single-payer system”—a government-managed system like Canada’s, which disconnects health insurance from employment—“would probably make sense. But we’ve got all these legacy systems in place, and managing the transition, as well as adjusting the culture to a different system, would be difficult to pull off. So we may need a system that’s not so disruptive that people feel like suddenly what they’ve known for most of their lives is thrown by the wayside.”
Obama's campaign literature claimed that the current situation with health care is as follows:
Making sure every American has access to high quality health care is one of the most important challenges of our time. The number of uninsured Americans is growing, premiums are skyrocketing, and more people are being denied coverage every day. A moral imperative by any measure, a better system is also essential to rebuilding our economy -- we want to make health insurance work for people and businesses, not just insurance and drug companies.
Obama then stated that the solution was to reform the health care system, as well as increasing the focus on preventative care and "to putting responsible science and technological innovation ahead of ideology when it comes to medical research".
As President, Obama has stated that he considers reform of America's health care system to be his highest legislative priority. On HealthReform.gov, the Obama administration states that "President Obama is committed to enacting comprehensive health reform this year that lowers costs, guarantees choice of doctors and plans, and assures quality affordable health care for all Americans." The healthcare system needs to be reformed, according to Obama, so that it will "ensure Americans get the high-quality, affordable care they need and deserve. Under the status quo, too many Americans can't get the affordable care they need when they fall ill".
On February 4, 2009, Obama signed the Children's Health Insurance Reauthorization Act which renews the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP).
Obama's desired plan currently seems to consist of insurance reform and significant cost reduction combined with the provision of a "public option", an insurance plan run by the government like the existing Medicare plan. This plan is opposed both by the Republicans and so-called Blue Dog Democrats - a coalition of fiscally conservatives and Democrats from the "red states". Obama has promised that the public option will not be mandatory or single-payer.
Interactions with media
Political opinion broadcasting by opponents has grown increasingly intense.
In response to a question by CBS News co-anchor Harry Smith after Smith commented "the kindest of terms you're sometimes referred to out in America is 'a Socialist.' The worst of which I've heard is -- called 'a Nazi."' President Obama said, interview on 2 April 2010, that "Well -- I mean, I think that -- when you've listened to Rush Limbaugh or Glenn Beck it's …" Smith interrupted and said "it's beyond that."
It's pretty - apparent and -- it's troublesome. But -- you know, keep in mind that there have been periods in American history where this kind of -- this kind of vitriol comes out. It happens often when -- you've got an economy that is making people more anxious and people are feeling that there's a lot of change that needs to take place. But that's not the vast majority of Americans.
I and most Americans do not believe President Obama is trying to do what's best for the country. Never in my life have I seen a regime like this, governing against the will of the people, purposely. I have never seen the media so supportive of a regime amassing so much power. And I have never known as many people who literally fear for the future of the country.
- ↑ Obama is of mixed parentage, but generally self-identifies as African American.
- ↑ In 1988 Jesse Jackson won 13 primaries and caucuses; unlike Obama, Jackson never led in the polls or delegate counts. Larry M. Bartels, C. Anthony Broh, "A Review: The 1988 Presidential Primaries," The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 53, No. 4 (Winter, 1989), pp. 563-589
- ↑ See  for recent newspaper and magazine articles
- ↑ Baràck (not = bárrack) Hussèin Obàma, see English spellings.
- ↑ Conspiracy theories that he was born in Kenya are not taken seriously by reliable sources. What is true is that he was originally a British as well as an American citizen, because his father was born in the British Empire. This was converted to citizenship of Kenya when it became independent in 1964, and was forfeit under its dual nationality law after he reached 21 and failed to renounce his US citizenship.
- ↑ see 
- ↑ See  and 
- ↑ Effect of Obama's Candor Remains to Be Seen, 
- ↑ BBC News: 'Barack Obama's grandmother dies '. November 4th 2008.
- ↑ Abdon M. Pallasch, "Obama's Legal Career," Chicago Sun Times, Dec. 17, 2007
- ↑ See J. Bennett Guess, "Thomas denounces smear campaign against UCC's largest congregation", Jan. 11, 2008, a United Church of Christ press release
- ↑ A copy of Michelle Robinson’s these can be found at: http://www.politico.com/pdf/080222_MOPrincetonThesis_1-251.pdf
- ↑ Widely reported in the press, that access to Michelle Obama's Princeton thesis had been restricted was confirmed by the myth-busting site snopes.com.
- ↑ Monica Langley,"Michelle Obama Solidifies Her Role in the Election", Wall Street Journal Feb. 11, 2008.
- ↑ See official Senate webpage
- ↑ Edward McClelland, "How Obama Learned to Be a Natural" Salon Feb. 12, 2007
- ↑ Edward McClelland, "How Obama Learned to Be a Natural" Salon Feb. 12, 2007
- ↑ Chicago Tribune, Cops Give Obama Subdued Reception
- ↑ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/08/24/AR2008082401671.html
- ↑ USA Today, Illinois' Obama revisits idea of 2008 run for White House
- ↑ Michael Barone and Richard E. Cohen, Almanac of American Politics: 2008 (2007) 538-43.
- ↑ http://www.time.com/time/subscriber/2005/time100/leaders/100obama.html
- ↑ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 1st Session. S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act, Thomas, May 12, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
- ↑ http://nwitimes.com/articles/2007/02/07/news/illiana/doc65cc98d8dc6506b28625727b0011edb5.txt
- ↑ Obama stresses anti-war stance, http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/politics/chi-obama_sun_finalmay20,0,6337865.story
- ↑ Obama Says He Regrets Land Deal With Fundraiser, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/16/AR2006121600729.html
- ↑ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6349081.stm
- ↑ "Senator Obama's victory speech [in Iowa] was a concise oratorical gem. No candidate in either party can move an audience like he can.... He's...charismatic." Bob Herbert, "The Obama Phenomenon," The New York Times, Jan. 5, 2008; Obama Dec 27. 2007 speech at Obama official website; Jonathan Greenberger, ABC News, May 17, 2007 report
- ↑ Kristin Jensen and Julianna Goldman, "Clinton, Obama Battle Makes for Partisan Politics Without Unity," Bloomberg News, Jan. 10, 2008
- ↑ Brian Friel, Richard E. Cohen and Kirk Victor, "Obama: Most Liberal Senator In 2007" National Journal, Jan. 31, 2008
- ↑ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/us_elections/article3134308.ece
- ↑ See NBC report at , and CNN report at 
- ↑ Carrie Budoff Brown, "Obama faces off against both Clintons," POLITICO Jan 20, 2008
- ↑ Mark Z. Barabak, "Obama easily wins heated S.C. primary," Los Angeles Times Jan. 27, 2008; Larry Sabato, Sabato's Crystal Ball - Vol. VI#3 Jan 24, 2008.
- ↑ Tim Reid, "Polls show Barack Obama damaged by link to Reverend Jeremiah Wright," (London) Times Online Mar. 21, 2008; Rasmussen reports, "The Impact of Pastor Wright and THE SPEECH on Election 2008," March 20, 2008
- ↑ TIME: 'Why Barack Obama is winning.' November 3 2008.
- ↑ CNN: 'Obama retakes oath of office after Roberts' mistake.' January 21, 2009.
- ↑ BBC: 'President Obama tackles first day.' January 21, 2009.
- ↑ CNN: 'George Mitchell named special envoy for the Middle East.' January 22, 2009.
- ↑ CNN: 'http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/22/guantanamo.order/index.html.' January 22, 2009.
- ↑ New Scientist: 'Obama to restore science to its rightful place.' January 20, 2009.
- ↑ New Scientist: 'Obama: "The days of Washington dragging its heels are over" .' January 26, 2009.
- ↑ Science: 'U.S. budget: a stimulus for science.' January 30, 2009.
- ↑ CNN: 'What got cut from the stimulus bill.' February 7, 2009.
- ↑ U.S. Department of Energy: 'Organization - Leadership'.
- ↑ BBC: 'Profile: Bill Richardson.' January 4, 2009.
- ↑ Time: 'Treasury Secretary: Timothy Geithner.'
- ↑ CNN: 'Obama: 'I screwed up' on Daschle appointment.' February 3, 2009.
- ↑ New Scientist: 'Historic trial to treat spinal injury with stem cells.' January 23, 2009.
- ↑ CNN: 'Obama overturns Bush policy on stem cells.' March 6, 2009.
- ↑ Peter Baker and Jeff Zeleny (May 26, 2009). Obama Hails Judge as ‘Inspiring’, New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2009.
- ↑ MacFarquhar, Larissa. The Conciliator: Where Is Barack Obama Coming From?, The New Yorker, 2007-05-07. Retrieved on 2010-01-04.
- ↑ BarackObama.com Issues - Health Care
- ↑ HealthReform.gov
- ↑ "Obama: Extreme Right-Wing Shows "Troublesome"", CBS News, 2 April 2010
- ↑ Byron York (2 April 2010), Limbaugh responds to Obama: 'Never in my life have I seen a regime like this'